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It seems like only last week that we were discussing the jokes published by Nichane, a Moroccan magazine of current events, in which the journalist who wrote the piece and the magazine’s editor-in-chief were hauled into court and made to feel, in the end, that they had barely escaped prison for the imaginary offense of insulting religion and the king. Then there was the episode in which Aboubakr Jamaï, founder of Nichane‘s competitor Le Journal Hebdo, decided to flee the country rather than pay a $350,000 fine that would cripple his magazine and force it into bankruptcy. Now it is Nichane‘s turn again, as I learned today from my friend Ayoub and later from Larbi, whose blog remains the go-to point (in French) for developments in Moroccan politics.

Here is the story. On July 30, Mohammed VI gave his annual speech from the throne, a discourse to the nation on the anniversary of the king’s coronation. This is the equivalent of the president’s State of the Union address to Congress, though as we will see, being the speech of an absolute monarch, it is full of overtones regarding the sacred institution of monarchy and its indispensable place in Moroccan tradition.

Following the speech, journalist Ahmed Reda Benchemsi wrote a provocative response that was printed in Nichane. The offending issue was confiscated by the authorities as soon as it reached the stands, but not before a few people got hold of copies. Nichane‘s French-language sister publication TelQuel was also seized, before it had even left the presses. No one seems to know whether TelQuel contained a French translation of the same piece (I think this is likely) or something just as offensive to the sensitivities of the Moroccan state.

Ayoub has translated Benchemsi’s editorial from the Moroccan original into French and posted it on his site. I’ve used Ayoub’s translation as the basis for my own translation into English. Speakers of Moroccan Arabic are welcome to compare my translation to the original which I’ve posted here. This scan got in my hands thanks to Mehdi, one of Larbi’s readers who posted it there in a comment.

What this proves, besides the remarkably thin skin of the Moroccan monarchy on any question concerning its own legitimacy (how is this even possible in modern times?) is the total ineffectiveness of censorship in the internet era. Mouna, another of Larbi’s readers, commented:

    Censorship is the expression of an extreme stupdity. First because it is useless in 2007, an era of communication and easy circulation of information. Furthermore, because it makes the person doing the censoring look foolish, given that despite himself, he immediately attracts attention to what irritated him.

She is right, and here is the proof. What would have remained an obscure editorial in a magazine almost unknown outside Morocco, is now on the internet in at least three languages, where it is hopefully embarassing the Moroccan authorities once again for their ham-fisted use of power. A use of power, I might add, that delegitimizes itself.

— • —

Your Majesty… What Are You Saying?

“You will find me, loyal subjects, always opposed to assaults on the usefulness of national elections and politcal parties.” That is how Mohammed VI expressed himself on July 30, in his speech from the throne. And His Majesty added, “The essence of elections does not consist in confrontation over the grand objectives of the nation, since these are a question of national consensus… and we will be the guarantor of their continuity even if conditions change, because that is how we see the national monarchy.”

If you don’t understand, read it again slowly, everything is clear: His Majesty is telling you that “the grand objectives of the nation” are his, and he is also “the guarantor of their continuity even if conditions change” because that is “his vision of the monarchy.” Concerning the electoral race among the parties (and now I’m developing what I’ve understood) this is merely a way to put into practice the “grand objectives” regarding which there is no room for discussion or doubt, because they are a question of “national consensus.” Reading you loud and clear, Sir!

All the same, anyone who says that political parties are useless (except to apply the royal objectives) is perfectly right, and elections are useless too, because their goal isn’t to choose certain objectives over others (recall that this is the principle of elections in a democratic society).

Does Mohammed VI realize that the political system he is openly promoting is the reason for the appearance of “nihilistic visions” (as he puts it) that doubt the value of elections? Does he realize that the political system he is promoting blocks the democratic evolution of this country? To be honest, it’s possible… because he himself promises us a “rendezvous” in this speech, to “move towards a gradual institutional cleanup, a total change for the better.” Huh? What “institutional cleanup”? Is this the constitutional change that democratic activists have been demanding since the death of Hassan II, whose goal would be to reduce the powers of the king relative to elected officials?

To be honest, if this is the change His Majesty is speaking of, it is long overdue! We need it badly! And the best proof is what the king said in this same speech: “I would like to insist that the system we have chosen is an executive monarchy, which cannot be reduced to a notion or a separation of executive, legislative and judicial institutions, but is the traditional Moroccan monarchy.” Pay close attention: His Majesty tells us that in our system, the three powers, executive, legislative and judicial are separate, but “the executive monarchy cannot be reduced to a notion or a separation of powers.”

In other words, the three powers are separate, but when they are brought together in the hands of the king (who, let us recall, uses all three) there is no longer a separation: to the contrary, they make a fine blend…. It is a true accumulation, by which the king becomes both judge and jury.

We need to remind ourselves here that the separation of powers, as elaborated by the French philosopher Montesquieu, who is considered the father of modern democracy, is an arrangement where power stops power: so that parliament oversees the executive branch, which is placed under the judiciary, especially if laws are broken. If the powers are concentrated in the hands of one individual, there is no longer any oversight, indeed nothing at all. How can a person oversee himself?

All that, then, we can call “the traditional Moroccan monarchy”… which has absolutely no connection with democracy, so ask yourself, you who wrote the throne speech, and you who read it in front of thirty million loyal subjects… if you will accept this insolence from one of them.

—by Ahmed Reda Benchemsi in Nichane (see the original article)

— • —

My Moroccan readers may be happy to see this important editorial in broader circulation, but my American readers may not understand what the big deal is, since we routinely hear criticisms of Bush, Cheney, Gonzales and Rove that are much, much worse. It probably seems hard to believe that a courageous young journalist could risk time in prison, or the loss of his license to practice, simply for questioning a speech by the head of state and implying that it doesn’t make much sense. So to give an idea of the atmosphere of Moroccan politics for those who don’t know it, I’m taking the liberty of translating Larbi’s post from two days ago, where he lays out the emotional background of the case.

— • —

Dark Days for Freedom of Expression in Morocco

The dark days continue: On Saturday, the Moroccan government ordered the seizure of two newsweeklies, Nichane and TelQuel, for “disrespect of the king.” We need to say NO to the politics of fear.

We mustn’t dare to allow ourselves to comment on the throne speech the Sovereign gave on the eighth anniversary of his coronation. The King of Morocco, Head of State and Chief Executive, summed up his year, his choices, his objectves and his actions. According to the rule, we should applaud with vigor and salute the royal discourse. Judge for yourself:

“Eight years of quiet change” (Al Alam), “a symbiosis between the throne and the people” (Rissalat al-Oumma), “the march of progress and modernity” (Le Matin), “His Majesty the King has Morocco on the move, all the active projects are moving ahead, all at once, in a situation of permanent overdrive” (Aujourd’hui le Maroc), “His Majesty the King has put Morocco on the road to a new era founded on modernity, democracy and development” (Al-Ittihad Al-Ichtiraki), “the reign of His Majesty the King is rich in accomplishments and reforms” (L’Opinion), “a speech that takes stock, but also a program announcing wide-ranging reforms and projects” (L’Economiste), “eight years of reign for His Majesty the King—exploits and promises” (Maroc Hebdo), “a king who builds and develops… has succeeded, in only 96 months, in transforming Morocco into a gigantic open-air work site” (La Gazette du Maroc), “eight years of reign have been indisputably fruitful and positive for Morocco… Morocco has the unmeasured good luck to have a great king” (La Nouvelle Tribune). But still… this is only a small sample of the self-congratulation at all levels. I’m sparing you extracts from radio and television broadcasts, and the statements of party leaders and political organizations.

Let’s be clear, these publications, these journalists and these personalities are within their rights to praise and bless the Sovereign. In a democracy, we need to accept the ideas of others. I’ll even go so far as to express the idea that not everything in this anthology of praise is false. But what are we to do in today’s Morocco if we aren’t convinced by the Sovereign’s speech, or when we aren’t in agreement with his proposals? Let’s be honest. There isn’t a single political leader in the world, not a single head of state, not a single human being who receives unanimously good reviews. That would be a superhuman miracle! It follows that when it comes to a head of state, it is possible to disagree with his speeches. That is what makes the difference between an authoritarian state and one in transition. That is the case of the journalist Ahmed Reda Benchemsi, who criticized the throne speech and in particular the sense and usefulness of organizing legislative elections in a regime where the King concentrates almost all power (let me say in passing that I share his opinion). Following which, the government seized the two newsweeklies Nichane and TelQuel for “disrespect of the King”! I would love to stop for a moment for someone to explain to me these simple words: is it blasphemy to criticize the head of state? Where is the harm if a few publications do that, given that more than 90% of the press and the political elite praise the King to no end? Is respect for the King the same as utter sycophancy?

Alas, the black days of 2007 continue! Not a week goes by without a journalist being harassed and brought before a judge, or a human rights activist beaten up. 2007 even sets a record in terms of publications seized and limits to free expression.

I’ve thought about it for a long time, fumbled, hesitated and thought some more. I’ve come to the following conclusion: Morocco has opted for a politics of fear whose aim is to silence all those who don’t fit the habitual mold. It labels as “high treason” what are simply personal opinions. It restricts thought today more than ever, and limits its field of action. It doesn’t cease to multiply its intimidations and constraints. Anchored in its certitudes, it fails to accept the differing viewpoints of some of its citizens, forbids their questionings, rejects their angers. It wants them to all be the same, aligned on the same thought, moving to the same rhythm, conforming to the same conformist model. Because of this, Morocco is closer to a totalitarian Third World country, and perhaps is one, than it is to a country that aspires to democracy. It’s sad, truly sad. I say NO to this politics of fear. We will not give in!

—by Larbi, August 5, 2007 (go to the original post)


Comment from Ahmed Kachkach
Time: August 7, 2007, 11:27

Thank you Eatbees for this excellent post !

I’m happy that people like you care about those things ;-) !

Bye !

Comment from leblase
Time: August 7, 2007, 14:01

It happens so that in a recent post in my quite messy blog I was recently expressing my fears that as far as violent integrism recruiting goes, more danger was looming from young Morocans that Iranians.
This idea was prompted by the fact that some of my readers are from Iran, many others from Morocco.
My opinion was that paradoxically, the ordinary Moroccan media is pathetically licking the Palace’s fantasmagoric policy whereas the Moroccan bloggers are challenging with finesse, rethoric, depth and a very acute sense of humor the real politics of Rabat.
A french journalist who, like me, loves Morocco was outraged at reading my opinion and presented Tel Quel as an example of the free press that the king would have allowed to grow!…
Only to be rebuffed by Moroccan readers (including Ayoub, by the way) who thought Tel Quel wasn’t much of an independant argument.
Now I read your post… Ayoub’s and Larbi’s… And I feel sorry. Because what Mohammed VI is doing is exactly what shouldn’t be done: killing all ways to openly express one’s opinions and share ideas in a society well known for its lively intellectual thirst.
Laying open only one way: the violent one.

Comment from eatbees
Time: August 7, 2007, 20:18

@Ahmed—People like me are like people like you, I guess ;-) Thanks for your visit.

@leblase—I have a Moroccan friend who is wondering why some people don’t think TelQuel is independent (he has heard it before, but doesn’t understand the reasoning). I should ask Ayoub, I guess.

Like you, I enjoy finding parallels between Morocco and Iran. In the 1970s, Hassan II and the Shah of Iran were fast friends, and were also the “pillars” of pro-Western policy in the Middle East. One of those pillars fell, the other did not—though in Morocco, the discontent that toppled the Shah (too-rapid and uneven modernization, a corrupt and even sadistic state) is still festering today.

An Iranian blogger friend shared her impressions with me of her visit to Morocco five years ago. She felt the people were very friendly, though a bit naive, compared to Iranians. She was shocked at the level of underdevelopment, particularly in education, in a nation so close to Europe. The West likes to accuse Iran of lack of freedom, but in Iran even the common people read poetry and are aware of their cultural heritage. The Moroccan curiosity and adaptability is similar to Iran’s, but the courage of critical thinking isn’t there. Which is why it’s so refreshing to see someone like Benchemsi using his God-given right to activate the head on his shoulders. I hope he will be an example to others.

Morocco is both lucky and unlucky today. Unlucky in that the State is having such a hard time leaving its old habits behind—so that it sees the emergence of a Benchemsi, or an Aboubakr Jamaï, as a threat instead of something to be proud of before the world. Lucky in the fact that this generation of young journalists does exist, and has the courage to push the limits. What impresses me about ARB is that he said what he said under his own name, in a mass forum, while living in Morocco—which elevates it several times above what some bloggers say from France or Canada, however important that may be. My feeling is that this article will be circulated, and discussed, and in another few weeks or months there will be another—then another.

The issues ARB raises can’t be suppressed, they need to be fixed. The Moroccan people are ahead of their leaders in so many ways. It will happen, it’s just a question of how and when. The Moroccans I know are long-suffering, patient people who abhor a rupture in the social fabric. That is what is keeping the nation together now. But that doesn’t mean they have turned off their minds, or smothered what is in their hearts.

Comment from Rip Van Winkle
Time: August 9, 2007, 07:26

I don’t feel the need to applaud or even sympathize with guys like Benchemsi, a self-appointed martyr of freedom of speech. Licking the ass of his masters in the West, in the tradition of a tiny but vey vociferous Casablanca-based clique, and adopting a colonialist vision of Morocco which has nothing to do with reality as it is, not as dreamt in thier sick philosophy, he has been writing about subjects of no relevance to Moroccans just to cater to his masters in Europe. I am sure he will be amply rewarded for services rendered to to the West.

Comment from does not matter
Time: August 10, 2007, 11:07

It is funny how we can accuse someone who just uses his common sense of being a slave for the so called western master. This speech is quite familiar but not very reassuring…Just a quick reminder, the west did not create freedom nor democracy, it evolved towards it, now those who are trying to reach this natural and hopefully soon acquired basic right are slaves. So be it dear sir I am another slave too…

Comment from AC/DC
Time: August 10, 2007, 13:42

Why all this brouhaha for some despicable virus trying to destroy the fabric of our country ?Benchemsi does not deserve all this attention . It’s the king who does need all the support he can get so he can keep developing the country. It’s wrong to support a blind subversive who’ s ultimate goal is to destroy what the king is doing and to transform this peaceful Morocco into another Algerian or Iraq tragedy.
Why should I sympathize or defend Benchemsi ?
What does he do for me or for my homeland?
Is he more important or more valuable than the developer of Morocco?I mean the king.
What Benchemsi doing is to sabotage the developement of Morocco in every aspect in order to gain popularity and power .It’s pure greed, no more no less. He is actually testing the determination of the government and his luck too .
Right now , Moroccans don’t need full freedom of speech or full democracy .
Morocco needs desperately jobs, social and economic development .That’s our priority if we have to survive in this competitive world.
Observ what is happening in Iraq and in some Middle East countries when someone tries to force democracy and all that stuff associated with it !
These countries fall in chaos and get destabilized.Iran became islamist when Khomeini got the power Iraq ,Palestine and lebannon are following that example, Palestine . And it’s there where Benchemsi and his blind supporters want to lead us. Who wants an Islamist Morocco?
Morocco and Moroccans will have everything they want in the near future if they know to be patient et if they don’t follow the steps of Benchemsi and consorts like Larbi/org for instance.
Morocco is not yet a European country or Norway to impose democracy and its bazaar on it, it’s still a developing country with 40% of illterate people and which income is about one dollar a day for 25% of its population –
First things first –
Mohamed VI , the leader and the builder of the modern Morocco is right now the most valuable person for the country .He needs all the respect
all the admiration , all the support and all the love he can get in order to stimulate him to achieve our dreams and his dream too.

The king needs praises and commendations for the (‘heckuva’ lol ) great job his doing for Morocco and Moroccan people.He is writing right now the most prestigious pages of Moroccan History . He does not need detractors critics and censure .

Who is Benchemsi?

What is he worth for Morocco?
What does he really know besides disturbing and embarrassing and belittling the king and the country ?
Benchemsi will deserve what the justice has in store for him especialy that he is still in probation for a precedent crime against the king.
And remember when you’re going to judge or evaluate freedom of speech and democracy
that Morocco is still a third world country and not Norway or Danemark.

Comment from Cat In Rabat
Time: August 10, 2007, 15:42

AC/DC: “Morocco needs desperately jobs, social and economic development” – this is true and it won’t happen without sweeping democratic reforms ushered in with free speech. To think otherwise is naive.

Comment from AC/DC
Time: August 10, 2007, 16:25

Wrong!In every aspect Morocco is 100 times better than when Mohamed VI came to power without or with some democratic reforms , with or without some free speech, because 99% or more of the people trust their king and the king does not abuse this trust; but some detractors will always try to put sticks in the wheel of this progress.
If Morocco had similar amount of human rights, democracy and free speech like in Europe, it will become another islamist country comparable to Iran. And we don’t want that to happen at any price ,now or in the future ,even if we moroccans surrender most of our dearest humans rights for it.

Comment from Rip Van Winkle
Time: August 10, 2007, 16:30

I don’t want my critique of Benchemsi to be construed as a defense of the ruling class or as an expression of complacent satisfaction with the current state of affairs in Morocco. We badly need to embark on a soul searching process, a painful and ego-shattering endeavor. We need to come up with a comprehensive and in-depth assessment of our society and try to work out together a genuine “projet de société” which involves all the components of Moroccan society. This is certainly not the agenda of this horde of bourgeois vulgar blasé pseudo-intellectuals as represented by the above-named person, with their dated vision of Morocco, as a land of sexual frustration, archaic religious beliefs and this almost genetic incapacity to comprehend and embrace of the fabulous virtues of the West, and their futuristic dream of Morocco as a land of sexual freedom (read promiscuity and debauchery), spiritual enlightenment (turning the collective memory into a table rase) and turning to the West for guidance.

Comment from eatbees
Time: August 10, 2007, 17:45

I think we should focus on two things — 1) the content of Benchemsi’s editorial, which was a call for constitutional reform that will provide a system of checks and balances, rather than the concentration of all power in the king’s hands as it is today; and 2) the question of whether a person should need to risk prison and charges of having “foreign masters” simply for advocating such views.

RVW, I appreciate your coming back and stating that you don’t feel “complacent satisfaction” with the way things are in Morocco. And I assume that means that you wouldn’t agree with everything your compatriot “AC/DC” said even though you are taking the same side of the argument. But when you talk about a Casablanca elite more concerned with sexual freedom than what interests ordinary Moroccans, you are projecting. Sexual freedom isn’t the subject of the editorial that got Benchemsi in trouble—limiting the king’s authority is. And I can assure you that his views on this subject resonate with many ordinary Moroccans who may not like the Westernization of Morocco. Democracy is extremely popular among the poor and frustrated young people who are about as far from the Casablanca elite as it is possible to get. They see the entire political class as corrupt, including most journalists who only sing praises of the king and party leaders—and they are desperate for some forum, some channel to express their views, which are the hopes for Moroccan progress we all share. The question is how to get there, and what is needed is a healthy, open debate, not an attitude of “Let’s all march behind our glorious leader.” The king needs to trust his own people, and Benchemsi isn’t the only one to observe that the throne speech didn’t express that trust. So this is not about Benchemsi or his magazine’s agenda—this is about the idea he is expressing, limited power, and it should be debated as an idea rather than having the State step in and say, “Lines have been crossed—to prison!”

AC/DC, what bothers me about your argument is first of all the idea that the king is somehow alone in developing Morocco. You call him “the developer of Morocco” as if there is only one. But M6 doesn’t live in a nation of one person—there are 30 million Moroccans. Each one has a role to play. Second, you say the Benchemsi is trying to sabotage the king’s work “in order to gain popularity and power.” If so, he chose a strange way to do it. Stating publicly what many people think privately (and might prefer to keep private) is a risky way to be popular in Morocco, and it’s hard to see this as a road to power. Third, you say that if Morocco were to allow the popular will to express itself in the voting booth, then it would become like Iran, ruled by Islamic extremists, or Algeria, fighting a civil war to prevent that result. This is a scare tactic that we’ve debated here in the past, and I reject it. The best way to avoid that result is to give people like Benchemsi a voice. If there is nothing to choose from except one-man rule or revolution, then one day, the nation may explode into crisis. None of us wants that to happen, which is why I feel that constitutional reform is imperative. It doesn’t have to be all at once, but the path of limited authority should be on the horizon. Eight years ago, when M6 came to power, Moroccans had great hopes of a democratic new dawn, and this year’s throne speech seemed to close the door on those hopes. Finally, you say that Morocco is not Norway, but how did Norway become the democratic model it is? Its monarchy gradually stepped back from politics, allowed its power to be limited, and gave room to opposing views. The same happened in Spain after the death of Franco, or in places like Brazil and Argentina after years of military rule. One-man rule needs to be replaced with rule by the people, because the people collectively have more talent than one man. I agree with you that social and economic development in Morocco are criticial, but I am with “Cat in Rabat” on this one. Only democracy can assure that development responds to the needs of the people, rather than the wishes of a wealthy and well-connected elite.

One final point. Can anyone tell me why the debate we are having here on this blog is harmful to Morocco? Because what Benchemsi and his advocates are defending is the right of ordinary Moroccans to have the same free and open exchange of ideas concerning their future that we are enjoying here. Nothing more nor less.

Comment from does not matter
Time: August 10, 2007, 17:56

freedom is badly needed in this country, sexwise, speechwise or else it is not the point. The real point is that people should get to have some dignity and respect, get to choose who they want to be and what they want to believe and of course obide by the law, and the law is not necessarily consider the king as God. As a moroccan I do not want to be the subject of the king, I am a citizen of morocco period. Imagin for example a contract that says that every morning you have to give a blow job the your boss because he is your boss, now the question is what are you going to do, either keep doing it or change it into something that makes sense. In our case the contract is the constitution…

Comment from does not matter
Time: August 10, 2007, 18:00

Thanks for those reminders

Comment from Rip Van Winkle
Time: August 10, 2007, 19:43

I am aware of the issues raised in Benchemsi’s editorial and I believe sooner or later they will have to be addressed. But I have no intention to let this guy speak on my behalf, since he is so removed from my reality as a Moroccan pauper. Of course he is entitled to defend the very special interests of the privileged class to which he belongs (which incidentally happen to be quite irrelevant to the man in the street) but he surely does not expect the masses whose lifestyle and beliefs he has relentlessly been denigrating in his glossy magazines to celebrate him as a popular hero.

Comment from AC/DC
Time: August 11, 2007, 00:25


Theorically you’re right, but realistically your views won’t work in a country where tribalism is still very strong. Observ what’s going in our Saharian provinces coveted by a native Moroccan of Marrakech .

Moroccans are not ready for democracy and all the components attached to it , a change like in Norway or Spain as suggested in your commentary above.
Morocco needs right now a strong leader like Mohamed VI to protect it against anarchy
destabilization and separatism.
We don’t want to follow the example of the liberation and democratisation of Iraq or Iran, Palestine etc…It only profits to Morocco’s enemies.
Someone needs to live in Morocco or to be a Moroccan native in order to understand deeply Moroccan character and its politics. Morocco is different, it’is not Spain or another European country. It’s part of Middle East : something very few pandits can really understand.

I don’t represent anybody but myself.
When I use “WE”, I mean me.

Comment from does not matter
Time: August 11, 2007, 09:19

We’ve been hearing the symphony over and over…Moroccans do not deserve and cannot handle and are not ready for democracy…Maybe there is a problem in defining democracy for some…A country cannot be run by individuals, especially forever and with genetic inheritance that is totally unpredictible…a state should be run by accoutable institutions… which are following a strong constitution that guarantees equal rights and duties for all citizens including the haed of the state, no one should be sacred and everyone deserves respect…having sacred individuals was perhaps usefull at the time of Gangiskhan (maybe) but we are in the 21st century my friend. I am curious to know how many moroccans think that the king is their protector against all the scary things you’re mentioning

Comment from AC/DC
Time: August 11, 2007, 13:49

No country is perfect, but monarchy as it is right now is suitable for Morrocco.Thanks God the country did not know tragedies and massacres like Algeria or Iraq, and that ‘s what counts the most for us : to spare people’s lives, which is more important than all the rights and all the wealth of the world.
Mohamed VI has a mission to mold Morocco at the image of a modern European country and for this noble task nobody has the right to disprupt his progress .

Comment from punchman
Time: August 11, 2007, 17:23

A foolish man may be known by six things: Anger without cause, speech without profit, change without progress, inquiry without object, putting trust in a stranger, and mistaking foes for friends
its sounds like benshamsi and his cew

Comment from Karim
Time: August 17, 2007, 21:51


I am highly offended by your support for an authoritarian system that continues to rule 30 million people against their will.

What makes you think that we all want to be a “modern European country”?

With all the problems with our “backward” region have, we have not produced anything close to a Nazi state that slaughtered over 10 million people and started 2 world wars in which many millions died uncessarly. Nazi Germany was a modern, highly developed and “civilized” (the land of Bethoven) European country. For the rest of the European countries, well they had their share in killing backward people in the millions too during their colonial adventures.

Apparently you’d pick a Nazi European state over conservative (and relatively democratic) Iran.

This authoritarin system that you support will fall, sooner or later.

It has no legitimacy among the people.

If the king wants to rule, he needs to run for elections and he also needs to stop acting like a God.

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